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Study Finds Impact on Endurance Athlete Performance with Electric Field-Generating Compression Garments

Tempe, AZ –

March 27, 2018

Compression Garments Embedded with Patented V.DoxTM Technology from Vomaris

Vomaris Innovations, Inc. announced results from the PERFORM (Potential for ElectRic Fields to Optimize PerfoRMance) study. Data revealed that Vomaris V.Dox Technology had a positive impact on endurance athletes as measured by decreased levels of physiologic stress during endurance cycling and running workouts. This decrease was statistically significantly lower for athletes when wearing the electric field (EF) generating PERFORM compression garments versus not wearing them. The pilot study enrolled athletes in training for IronmanTM races or other endurance competitions and followed them over a four-week training cycle to understand more about V.Dox Technology’s potential to impact performance and recovery.

Vomaris’s patented V.Dox Technology utilizes microcell batteries embedded in fabric to generate an EF when moistened, which is designed to mimic skin’s physiologic EFs. Application of external EFs has been shown to reduce the inflammatory and immune response when used on intact skin.1 The use of V.Dox Technology in compression garments was potentially thought to have a parallel and positive impact, which is why the study was commissioned.


The prospective non-randomized study enrolled 23 qualified endurance athletes (8 men and 15 women) between the ages of 21 and 60, who were working under the instruction of Sherry Boston Rennard, NASM Certified Athletic Trainer and Ironman Certified Coach. Rennard recruited the athletes, designed workouts around individual training goals and fitness levels, and assisted in their evaluation. Data was collected during 490 workouts, entered into the TrainingPeaksTM software program, and statistically analyzed by comparing athletes’ objective and subjective performance with and without PERFORM compression garments. Baseline measurements without PERFORM garments were first obtained for each athlete; statistical comparisons were then made between workout sessions during the subsequent study period, with and without PERFORM garments. For each workout, athletes wore a fresh set of compression garments (shirts and shorts) with V.Dox Technology embedded on the skin contact surface of the garments.

PERFORM Study Outcomes

Overall, when PERFORM garments were worn compared to athletes’ regular workout apparel, they recorded quantitative reductions in measurements of physiologic stress including lowered heart rate, Training Stress Score [per hour], and Intensity Factor. Reductions in physiologic stress were particularly pronounced and statistically significant in workouts lasting at least 45 minutes. These reductions in stress were observed during both biking and running sessions.

In addition to the objective data, a majority of athletes wearing PERFORM garments subjectively reported an improvement in energy level during workout and decreased soreness and muscle fatigue post-workout. Ninety percent (90%) of athletes reported diminished or no garment odor post-workout, which may be attributed to the known antibacterial effect of V.Dox Technology.2-4

Interestingly, 35% of trial athletes achieved a personal record during the study period in a race that included either Olympic distance or half Ironman triathlons or marathons.

Study Impact

“We are encouraged by the results of the PERFORM study,” said Vomaris President & CEO, Michael Nagel. “Our V.Dox Technology has the potential to bring a new level of energy, literally and figuratively, to the compression garment industry, which is actively seeking innovation.”

To date, innovation in athletic apparel has been focused on keeping athletes cool, warm, or dry and is only now beginning to focus on performance and recovery. Nagel himself, a committed endurance athlete, seven-time Ironman finisher, and ultra-marathoner, recognizes that “the pursuit of every serious athlete is to improve their performance … continually.” He added, “This study looks at measurements of physiologic stress and demonstrates that it may be possible to affect performance and recovery in a positive way, based on what you wear.”

Vomaris is in the planning phases with a major athletic institution for an additional study to enable more in-depth analyses of applicability for their technology in sports apparel and its potential to impact athletic performance and recovery. The ability to embed the microcell batteries onto a multitude of substrates makes this technology highly extensible into other use areas and the Company is engaged in discussions for sports apparel commercialization opportunities.


  1. Kaur S, Lyte P, Garay M, Liebel F, Sun Y, Liu J-C, et al. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation that reduces the inflammatory and immune responses in skin. Arch Dermatol Res. 2011;303:551-562.
  2. Banerjee J, Ghatak PD, Roy S, Khanna S, Hemann C, Deng B, et al. Silver-zinc redox-coupled electroceutical wound dressing disrupts bacterial biofilm. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3): e0119531. doi:10.1371.
  3. Barki KG, Das A, Dixith S, Ghatak PD, Mathew-Steiner S, Schwab E, et al. Electric field based dressing disrupts mixed-species bacterial biofilm infection and restores functional wound healing. Ann Surg. 2017.
  4. Kim H, Makin I, Skiba J, Ho A, Housler G, Stojadinovic A, et al. Antibacterial efficacy testing of a bioelectric wound dressing against clinical wound pathogens. Open Microbiol J. 2014;8:15-21.
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 – Last updated: 

August 2022

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